He successfully challenged U. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People brought him on as legal counsel when he was still fresh out of law school. He was just 32 when he won his first case before the U. Supreme Court , Chambers v.
Board of Education. Supreme Court. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. After the death of his wife, Vivian, in , Marshall married Cecilia Suyat. Together they had two sons, Thurgood Jr. President John F. In , an African American woman, Irene Morgan, was arrested in Virginia for refusing to give up her seat on an interstate bus and sued to have her conviction overturned. In Morgan v. Supreme Court ruled that the conviction should be overturned because it violated the interstate commerce clause of the Constitution.
Other victories followed.
In , in Shelley v. Kraemer , the U. Supreme Court held that courts could not enforce real estate covenants that restricted the purchase or sale of property based on race.
Ferguson , which gave legal sanction to segregated school systems. Sweatt v. Painter was a case brought by Herman Marion Sweatt, who sued the University of Texas for denying him admission to its law school because state law prohibited integrated education.
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Texas attempted to form a separate law school for African Americans only, but in its decision on the case, the U. Not all efforts to enact desegregation required the use of the courts, however. He was the first African American to play baseball in the National League, breaking the color barrier. Although African Americans had their own baseball teams in the Negro Leagues, Robinson opened the gates for them to play in direct competition with white players in the major leagues.
Other African American athletes also began to challenge the segregation of American sports. These changes, while symbolically significant, were mere cracks in the wall of segregation. Baseball legend Jackie Robinson a was active in the civil rights movement. Alice Coachman b , who competed in track and field at Tuskegee University, was the first black woman to win an Olympic gold medal. Until , racial segregation in education was not only legal but was required in seventeen states and permissible in several others.
Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas before the U. Marshall showed that the practice of segregation in public schools made African American students feel inferior.
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Even if the facilities provided were equal in nature, the Court noted in its decision, the very fact that some students were separated from others on the basis of their race made segregation unconstitutional. This map shows those states in which racial segregation in public education was required by law before the Brown v. Board of Education decision. In , four years later, fewer than 10 percent of southern African American students attended the same schools as white students.
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His continued close association with Houston led Marshall to aggressively defend blacks in the court system and to use the courts as the weapon by which equal rights might be extracted from the U. Constitution and a white racist system. Houston also suggested that it would be important to establish legal precedents regarding the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling of separate but equal. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and Thurgood Marshall present a new poster in the campaign against southern white racism.
Marshall successfully argued the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education before the U. Florida , which held that confessions obtained by violence and torture were inadmissible in a court of law. His most well-known case was Brown v.
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Board of Education in , which held that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students were unconstitutional. Later in life, Marshall reflected on his career fighting racism in a speech at Howard Law School in When Marshall says that the problems of racism have not been solved, to what was he referring?
Plessy v. Fergusson had been overturned. Listen free for 30 days. By: Charles River Editors.
Thurgood Marshall Essay - Words | Cram
Narrated by: Nicholas S. Length: 39 mins. Summary "A child born to a black mother in a state like Mississippi What members say.