The model results simulate well the observed data. Editorial Board. Subscription Questions. Skip to main content. Email Address. Password Forgot My Password. Reset your password. View My Binders. This article in CS Vol. Criteria for land capability class: i. Slope and erosion hazard. Soil depth. Stoniness and rockiness. Water holding capacity. Nutrient availability. Fertility status. Salinity, alkalinity and acidity hazards. Therefore, the soil has to be a good soil.
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Grouping of fruits according to their tolerance to salinity: a. High salt tolerance : Date palm, Ber and Aonla. Medium salt tolerance : Pomegranate, Fig and Grape. Climate is defined as the whole of average atmospheric phenomena for a certain region calculated for a period of thirty years.
These phenomena are light, heat, water and air. Turmeric and ginger. This exerts considerable influence on flowering. Based on the response by plants the major classes are following. However, fruit crops for such categories are not known. Day neutral plants: Tomato, most fruit crops, Pepper, Cucumber, Snapdragon, Mirabilis and certain varieties of peas.
Therefore, under such conditions appropriate choice of plants and provision of protection become important. Based on temperature variations on the surface of the earth we have the following climates. Classification of plants according to photoperiodic requirements. To each pit add carbofuron 25g for control of white ants. Mango 10 2.
Grape i Head system 2. Jamun Prepared By Dr. Banana i Tall varieties 2. Pineapple 30x60x90 cm Custard apple 5 Jack fruit 10 Planting season: The planting season of different fruit crops vary on the basis of their evergreen or deciduous nature. Various resources are soil and water.
Resources for better comprehension of orchard management are; 1 Soil management 2 Water management 3 Nutrition management 4 Pruning and training plant management 5 Weed management 6 Plant protection against insect pests and diseases. Objectives of soil management: 1 To create favourable conditions for moisture supply and proper drainage. It may be green manure crop also.
Methods of Soil Management: Appropriate soil management method is important for the control of weeds, incorporation of organic and inorganic fertilizers and to facilitate absorption of water in soil. The common soil management practices are, 1 Cultivation 2 Sod Culture 3 Mulching and 4 Rotation Choice of the system is determined by many factors as mentioned below: i Type of crop ii Rooting depth of the crop iii Slope of the soil iv Rainfall of the area v Climatic condition of the place vi Economic condition of the farmer 1.
In cultivation different modifications are made under specific conditions. Advantages: a. Adds organic matter in soil. Improves soil condition.
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Improves soil fertility. Increases water retention capacity of soil. Increases biological complexes of soil. Checks soil erosion. Checks nutrient losses through soil erosion. This can be mixed strip or relay cropping. They are being presented in Table 4. Table 4: Intercrops in different orchard crops. Modifications in Sod System i.
Grasses are allowed to grow without cutting is not desirable because organic matter is lost. Grasses are grown cut as required and removed for making hay not desirable because organic matter is lost here also. Grasses are grown cut and left behind to decompose. Grasses are grown and pastured i. Temporary sod. Sod is allowed for two years or so, then soil is ploughed, cultivated and sod is reseeded. It offers a number of advantages at the same time suffer from disadvantages too.
Conserves moisture by suppressing weed growth, regulating soil temperature and protection from sun and wind. Improves soil structure.
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Reduces soil temperature fluctuations. Increases soil organic matter level. Controls erosion. Improves water infiltration rate. Improves nutrient availability through better soil condition micro flora. Avoids competition for nutrient and moisture with main crop. Controls weed growth. Disadvantages: i High cost.
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Table 5: Recommended mulches for different fruit crops. Sl No.
Choice of the legumes can be decided on the basis of climatic region. Generally sesbania, crotolaria, cluster- bean and cowpea, are preferred as they add higher quantities of organic matter and nitrogen. Advantages a Helps in controlling insect pests and diseases. It offers a number of advantages: i This system has higher employment potential being labour intensive. When to irrigate? A little before the trees show the sign of wilting. That may result in the splitting of fruits and even the splitting of bark of the branches and trunk.
The best system is the one which meets the moisture seepage and evaporation.
Principally, irrigation systems can be divided under three broad headings: I. Surface irrigation : a. Flooding b. Basin type c. Furrow type d. Ring type II. Sub-surface irrigation : a. Trench method b. Through underground pipelines c. Perforated pipelines. Overhead or aerial irrigation : a. Sprinkler b. Revolving nozzles IV. Drip or trickle irrigation I.
Because of the high application rates, their use is restricted to soils with high infiltration rates, such as sandy or gravelly. Usually the rate of application followed in the rate of 0.